jeudi 28 octobre 2010

“Toxic & Not Biodegradable,” Goody Bags Parent Company Admits

Yesterday, the Federal Court of Australia ruled plastic bag company NuPak Australia has engaged in misleading and deceptive conduct related to environmental marketing claims for Goody-brand “degradable” bags.

The court heard the company had claimed its bags were biodegradable and compostable when this was not the case. The court was told its bags also contained a heavy metal in amounts that exceeded the maximum concentration under Australian standards.

NuPak has been ordered to publish corrective notices on its website, send a letter to each customer and contribute $10,000 towards the costs of the ACCC over the proceedings.

Following legal action by the Australia Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC), Nupak Australia is Pty Ltd (‘Nupak’) has consented to a declaration being made by the Federal Court of Australia that it contravened sections 52 and 53 of the Trade Practices Act 1974 (the TPA) by making false representations and engaging in misleading or deceptive conduct.
As part of the court action, Nupak has consented to a Court declaration that ‘Goody’ brand plastic bags supplied by Nupak did not biodegrade or disintegrate and contained a toxic or hazardous substance, and therefore were not complaint with the Australian Standard.

Nupak has given an undertaking to the Court to refrain from representing that ‘Goody’ brand plastics bags are biodegradable, compostable or comply with the Australia Standard unless first receiving independent scientific testing that supports the claim.

Nupak has consented to orders that it publish corrective notices in The Advertiser (a daily newspaper from Adelaide, Australia) and also to an order to implement a Trade Practices Compliance and Education Training Program regarding its responsibilities and obligations under Australian law.

Nupak has paid a contribution towards the ACCC’s costs of instituting the proceedings.

In a written statement, the Biodegradable Products Institute commented:

“We are glad to see that manufacturer’s unsupported claims are recognized as misleading. We hope to see more of this in the future, in response to the growing number of these claims around the globe.

mercredi 27 octobre 2010

Plastic from Plants: Is It an Environmental Boon or Bane?

Plant-based plastics are beginning to replace petroleum. But as the price drops and usage rises, will the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?

More than 2.5 billion plastic bottles—partially made from plants—are already in use around the world in a bid to replace petroleum as the fundamental building block of everyday plastics. The so-called PlantBottle from the Coca-Cola Co. is made by converting sugars from sugarcane farmed in Brazil into the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic commonly used in the ubiquitous clear bottles for various beverages. Fully recyclable, the bottles debuted at the 2009 U.N. Copenhagen Climate Conference and Vancouver Olympics, and are now on sale from Japan to Chile and across the U.S.

Most importantly from Coke's point of view, none of the six other major varieties of plant-based plastic can keep the carbonation from leaking out. "It's not only to hold carbonation, it's just to hold water," explains chemist Shell Huang, Coca-Cola's director of packaging research. "You can lose moisture through the bottle wall" with some of the other available plant-based polymers.

But can plants become more widely used as building blocks of ubiquitous plastics? In a sense it is back to the future with biopolymers—the very first plastics were produced by German chemists in the 19th century via a fermentation processes. Yet, earlier in October, Frito-Lay withdrew a high-profile example of plant-based plastic for the majority of its SunChips bags. Why? Not because it was unsafe or failed to compost as advertised but because the sound of the crinkling plastic was louder than customers liked.

"Only a Frito-Lay brand is big enough…so that the final product is cost-competitive," said Marc Verbruggen, president and CEO of NatureWorks, the provider of the bioplastic in the SunChips bags—as well as in products ranging from tea bags to diapers—in a 2009 interview. "Biopolymers will be the next generation of plastics."

The PlantBottle might prove that point, helped by the fact that it is a different form of plastic from that which made up the failed SunChips bag. The first step in making it is fermenting ethanol from the sugarcane in Brazil. That ethanol is then exported to India where it is processed as monoethylene glycol, or MEG—which comprises roughly 30 percent of a typical PET bottle. The rest is composed of traditional, petroleum-derived plastic. "This is the most sustainable raw material for now," Huang says. "Longer term, our goal is to make [the plastic] from plant waste," such as the lignin or cellulose in the sugarcane's leaves and stems.

Making the PlantBottle has thus far saved roughly 70,000 barrels of oil by the company's calculations—and the plastic resin, indistinguishable from its petroleum-based analog, can be exported throughout the world. "We are making PET from a renewable resource so there's a lower carbon footprint, and we can take advantage of existing infrastructure to recycle it," Huang explains. Plus, "the carbon is captured in the [plastic of the] bottle and never goes back to the air."

Of course, plant-based plastics run into the same problem as plant-based fuels—directly or indirectly they have an impact on food production. Whereas making ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil is energy efficient—more energy is embedded in the ethanol than goes into growing and harvesting the plants—replacing a significant fraction of the global demand for plastics, let alone fuels, would require converting large swaths of yet more Brazilian land into sugarcane fields. And one of the leading bioplastics—Ingeo, made by NatureWorks, owned by Cargill—relies on heavily fertilized and thus energy-intensive corn (unlike sugarcane) to make polylactic acid, or PLA, which now appears in products such as the SunChips bags or Stonyfield Farm yogurt cups.

"In the long run this could become an issue," admits Frederic Scheer, CEO of Cereplast, which plans to introduce an algae-based bioplastic product, in addition to a starch-based biopolymer it already markets, by the end of 2010. "You cannot have access to farmland without creating pressures on the food system."

Thus far, bio-based plastics have only replaced roughly 1 percent of the hundreds of billions–kilogram global plastics market, according to Lux Research, although that percentage may grow in coming years. The majority of those plastics, like PLA, are not recyclable, but rather compostable using high heat (temperatures of roughly 60 degrees Celsius).

"It takes 77 million years to make fossil fuels and 45 minutes to use as a coffee cup," says Cereplast's Scheer, noting that his industry can use the residue of government-mandated production of biofuels, such as ethanol from corn. "It makes no sense."

Regardless of the environmental logic, the plant-based plastics remain more expensive. "There is, right now, a bit of a price-up charge that we are absorbing, not passing it along to consumers," Lisa Manley, Coca-Cola's group director of sustainability communications, says of the PlantBottle. But "if you look at the volatility of pricing for petroleum—in short order and over the long term—the price comparisons will be at parity, and perhaps better."

That is why Coca-Cola, at least, is now working toward a 100 percent plant-based plastic bottle. "We don't have a definite timeline but we already did a feasibility study," Huang says. "It is technically feasible to make a 100 percent plant bottle from the material."

mardi 26 octobre 2010

EMBALLAGES ÉCORESPONSABLES: Concevoir mieux avec moins

Suite à plusieurs demandes des lecteurs de ce blogue, je publie l’intégralité de l’article: EMBALLAGES ÉCORESPONSABLES : Concevoir mieux avec moins, publié dans le dernier numéro de L’Actualité Alimentaire.

Cliquez ici pour télécharger l’intégralité de l’article

Bonne lecture

lundi 25 octobre 2010

Marvel Over-packaging: Plus c'est gros, mieux ça passe

Les jouets pour enfants, non seulement ils sont difficiles à ouvrir, mais ils sont aussi sur-emballés.

La raison de ce suremballage, tromper le consommateur. Mais ce cas Marvel dépasse l’entendement : emballage surréaliste qui mérite le prix de l’emballage-Arnaque le plus Éco-Irresponsable.

Vous pouvez consulter ici le dossier consacré au suremballage (Over-packaging)

Compostable tray heralds new era for chocolate boxes

It is perhaps the ultimate guilt-free invention for die-hard chocoholics looking to destroy the evidence of their crime.

After the chocolates have been devoured, the empty tray – scourge of recyclers – can not only be put on the compost heap, but will also disappear completely if placed under a running tap.

Marks & Spencer is using the new packaging for the first time in its entire Swiss Chocolate Collection range. The new products go on sale in store from today, in anticipation of high demand from shoppers in the runup to Christmas.

The trays will be made of plantic, a material made from starch that is 100% compostable. When plantic becomes moist it breaks down completely, making it ideal for home composting.

Helene Roberts, head of packaging at M&S, said: "This is a fantastic step forwards for food packaging – we know our customers really want to be responsible and using plantic means they can enjoy a delicious box of chocolates without the worry of what to do with the leftover tray – they can just throw it on their compost heap." Once on the compost heap, the plantic tray will take around three weeks to break down completely. If the tray is put under water it will dissolve in a matter of minutes.

In the new chocolate boxes, the outer layer is made from Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified cardboard, while the mat that sits on top is made from greaseproof paper and is also fully recyclable.

The only material not compostable will be the plastic film wrapped around the box. This is made from PP – recyclable but not currently collected in Britain.

M&S was the first British retailer to trial plantic in 2007, and after successful customer feedback the retailer decided to use the material for its entire range of Swiss chocolates which have just gone on sale for Christmas.

This will be the widest range of products available on the high street packed in plantic. The tray will also be rolled out for another Christmas favourite, mince pies.

The move is part of manufacturers' and retailers' drive to increase the amount of packaging they use from renewable and sustainable materials.

Roberts added: "We want to make sure the packaging we use can be easily recycled or composted – this is not only better for the environment but also for our customers who can now enjoy a box of guilt-free chocolates – they just have to resist eating them all at once."

Development of the new biodegradable packaging has been spearheaded in Australia, and packaging experts and scientists believe it has the potential to revolutionise the mainstream confectionery packaging market.

dimanche 24 octobre 2010

Bio-coatings for corrugated Boxes: Bio-Resin and Water-Based Coatings

The RISI’S 14th International Containerboard Conference is scheduled for November 3-5, 2010, at the Swissotel in Chicago, IL, USA. This event offers unparalleled networking opportunities with top decision-makers from the leading containerboard producers, converters and packaging buyers. The 2010 program will explore growth prospects, cost reduction strategies, changing quality requirements and more in containerboard and corrugated markets.

I will attend the conference and give a speech entitled: “Bio-coatings for corrugated Boxes: Bio-Resin and Water-Based Coatings
  1. Why wax is on the wane?
  2. Market drivers: Sustainability is a Shared Responsibility
  3. Bio-coated paper and paperboard: Renewable & Compostable
  4. Water-based Barrier: Repulpability, an Important Route to Sustainability
  5. Take home…

vendredi 22 octobre 2010

Plant-Based Plastics Not Necessarily Greener Than Oil-Based Relatives

Biopolymers are the more eco-friendly material, but farming and energy-intense chemical processing means they are dirtier to produce than petroleum-derived plastics, according to study in Environmental Science & Technology.

The researchers examined 12 plastics—seven petroleum-based polymers, four biopolymers, and one hybrid. The team first performed a life-cycle assessment (LCA) on each polymer’s preproduction stage to gauge the environmental and health effects of the energy, raw materials, and chemicals used to create one ounce of plastic pellets. They then checked each plastic in its finished form against principles of green design, including biodegradability, energy efficiency, wastefulness, and toxicity.

Biopolymers were among the more prolific polluters on the path to production, the LCA revealed. The team attributed this to agricultural fertilizers and pesticides, extensive land use for farming, and the intense chemical processing needed to convert plants into plastic. All four biopolymers were the largest contributors to ozone depletion. The two tested forms of sugar-derived polymer—standard polylactic acid (PLA-G) and the type manufactured by Minnesota-based NatureWorks (PLA-NW), the most common sugar-based plastic in the United States—exhibited the maximum contribution to eutrophication, which occurs when overfertilized bodies of water can no longer support life. One type of the corn-based polyhydroyalkanoate, PHA-G, topped the acidification category. In addition, biopolymers exceeded most of the petroleum-based polymers for ecotoxicity and carcinogen emissions.

However, once in use, biopolymers beat traditional polymers for eco-friendliness, according to researchers. For example, the sugar-based plastic from NatureWorks jumped from the sixth position under the LCA to become the material most in keeping with the standards of green design.

mercredi 20 octobre 2010

Emballages Éco-Responsables : Concevoir mieux avec Moins

Je vous invite à lire mon article publié dans le dernier numéro de la revue l’Actualité Alimentaire : Emballages Éco-Responsables : Concevoir mieux avec Moins

La prise de conscience environnementale des entreprises agroalimentaires peut et doit devenir le moteur d’innovation en matière d’emballage. L’éco-conception est un outil prometteur dans une démarche stratégique pour se différencier de la concurrence et rassurer un consommateur soucieux d’opérer des choix plus verts.

dimanche 17 octobre 2010

Bioplastics News: Packaging and automotive applications

Global Biopolymer Market Forecasts and Growth Trends to 2015-Starch-based Polymers Driving the Growth”, provides an in-depth analysis of the global biopolymer industry. The total global biopolymers market by volumes is set to grow at a CAGR of 27.3% from 2009 to 2015 to reach 2,680,590 tons.

The packaging market is the oldest market for biopolymers. The biodegradability and the bio-based raw materials make it a perfect choice for packaging. It is estimated to hold a revenue share of 53.2% in 2009. However, with the other markets such as automotive, medical and electrical & electronics applications are also growing at a higher rate. This will lead to the packaging market losing its volume share in the forecast period between 2009 and 2015.

Toyota Motor Corp. announced Wednesday the development of a new kind of plant-derived bioplastic for use in vehicle interiors that it claims has improved heat resistance and durability. The carmaker said the first application of the new material will be in the trunk of the luxury hybrid Lexus CT200h, which is due out at the start of 2011.

Because of its superior heat resistance and durability, Toyota believes the new bioplastic can also be used for the seats and carpeting in cars.

While use of the material initially will be limited to the trunk of the Lexus CT200h, Toyota plans to release a car next year that will use plant-derived bioplastics for 80 per cent of its interior

To educate the public about what car parts are compostable bioplastics, Solegear is working with the recycling industry to introduce the number 8 that could be stamped on parts using its material to let people known that when a bioplastic product can be composted to create soil for gardening or fed into a anaerobic digester to create gas for energy use. Right now 7 is a catch-all category for plastics, and is currently used on bioplastics.

When the public will need to start looking for the telltale stamp of a biodegradable plastic is still up in the air. Although, they have meetings lined up with carmakers, no contracts are in place. But Reid emphasizes that automotive manufacturers have the potential to be leaders in the adoption of green chemistry.

"You don't have to look far to see soy-based polymer being used in seats, and now there are even more durable bioplastics coming into the market, he says. "The automotive industry stands to benefit because we live in a world of finite resources, and switching to renewable resources provides a competitive advantage for generations to come."

But a completely compostable car probably isn't in the cards, says Reid, "there are some aspects of a car's engineering that requires metal.

samedi 16 octobre 2010

Could Mushrooms Take the Place of Styrofoam?

Via Treehugger

Bayer has channeled his anger towards what he calls "the toxic white stuff" or Styrofoam into coming up with a better solution. We currently spend $20 billion a year to produce all sorts of Styrofoam, from coolers to carryout containers and it takes 1.5 liters of petrol to produce just one cubic foot of the stuff. Currently, according to Bayer, Styrofoam occupies 25 percent of our landfills. Instead, we need to come up with a material that fits into nature's own recycling system.

mercredi 13 octobre 2010

Stonyfield: PLA for the yogurt cups

Last month, Stonyfield began transitioning to a material composed mostly of polylactic acid (PLA), which is corn-based.

This is a major transition for a company of Stonyfield’s size, especially given its cache among sustainability-focused firms. But it’s also not a perfect solution. For one thing, the PLA is produced by NatureWorks, a subsidiary of the agri-giant Cargill, and a company one might be surprised to find linked to the yogurt-maker, which prides itself on using organic ingredients and supporting sustainable agricultural practices. Also, the PLA cups are no more recyclable than the polystyrene they are replacing—in fact, there are only two facilities that recycle the PLA, and only one in the U.S.

Still, as Nancy Hirshberg, Stonyfield’s vice president of natural resources, told Triple Pundit, while PLA isn’t a perfect solution, it’s a better one than continuing to use polystyrene. Because the new packaging is comprised of 93 percent PLA, it’s mostly corn. And regardless of whether that corn is from genetically modified seed, it’s still not the oil used in polystyrene. In fact, Stonyfield figures that 48 percent fewer greenhouse gases will be emitted each year by transitioning from polystyrene to PLA for the yogurt cups.

And while you’re not going to find any municipal systems that will take that empty PLA cup away in the blue bins, Stonyfield says it is a priority for the company to launch a pilot program to take back the packaging from consumers and send it to the U.S. recycling facility (in Wisconsin), where it will actually be recycled back into PLA, and not downcycled into other products, which is the fate of petroleum-based plastics (such as the polypropylene used in other Stonyfield packaging). And speaking of that other packaging, she says Stonyfield is always researching alternatives to petroleum-based plastics for all its products, but for now, the PLA will only replace its polystyrene containers.

But the bigger impact that this decision may have on makers of consumer packaged goods, in general, is to inch the industry a bit closer to bio-based plastics. However, it’ll be a long and bumpy road before PLA is truly sustainable packaging, and building out a proper take-back and recycling infrastructure for this material will take many years. In the meantime, most YoBabies will end up in the YoLandfill.

dimanche 10 octobre 2010

Polysole® XD: Solegear develops 100% natural, biodegradable polymer

Based on its recent analysis of the biopolymers market, Frost & Sullivan recognizes Solegear Bioplastics Inc. (Solegear) with the 2010 North American Frost & Sullivan Award for New Product Innovation of the Year for its Polysole® Bioplastic. Polysole XD, an all-natural, biodegradable plastic that could find use in automotive interior parts, comes as meltable pellets.

The Polysole® Bioplastic products are available in three different grades for various applications. Polysole® TF is an engineered thermoplastic resin for thermoforming and extrusion to manufacture films and sheets. Polysole® LV is a low-viscosity grade specifically designed for the processors looking for low cycle times. Polysole® XD is the high-performance grade with increased impact strength and flexibility. These grades can be customized and used in customers’ existing processing lines without any significant modifications such as shutting down or retooling of the system. This results in increased throughput and enables the customer to gain additional cost savings and efficiencies.

samedi 9 octobre 2010

Packaging of the week: Amcor Flexidity, sustainability, functionality and differentiation

Amcor Flexidity® combines a flexible pouch with a carton sleeve, with the flexible pouch ensuring that the product stays fresh and food waste is reduced and also delivering the easy opening and reclose features and the cardboard providing the shape and the many convenience benefits, like easy sharing, easy pouring or easy handling. To consume the product, users simply push in the pack on the side to form a stand-up pack and to ensure a wide opening of the pouch.

As an aspect of sustainability, Amcor Flexidity® is the ideal alternative to glass, metal or rigid plastic containers, leading to both cost and environmental benefits in storage and transportation. Due to the pack’s limited packaging weight and volume, more packs can be loaded onto one truck, thus reducing the number of trucks and the corresponding CO2 emission. After consumption, the carton sleeve can be separated from the pouch and recycled through the paper recycle stream.

vendredi 8 octobre 2010

Jim Lunt: Facts about Frito-Lay compostable Bag, PLA end life and GMO

I share with you the comment of Jim Lunt in the Biodegradable plastics LinkedIn Group.

Watching the twists and turns this discussion is taking, I think it really is time to get back to facts and put aside vested interests and non factual assertions.

The product (Frito-Lay Sunchips Biodegradable bag) is noisy and yes it is compostable as defined in the industry accepted ASTM D6400 and yes Frito lay appear not to have been completely clear in their marketing. However the product is compostable as defined by the above standard. The conditions of this standard are very specific on 3 elements:

1. Mineralization

• At least 90 percent conversion to carbon dioxide, water and biomass via microbial assimilation.
• Occurs at the same rate as natural materials (i.e. leaves, grass food scraps.)
• Occurs within a time period of 180 days or less.

2. Disintegration

• Less than 10 percent of test material remains on a 2mm sieve.

3. Safety

• No impact on plants, using OECD Guide 208.
• Regulated (heavy metals less than 50 percent of EPA prescribed threshold.)

It is true that the temperatures and humidity are much higher in this test than found in back yard environments (Whether you agree or disagree with this standard is a completely different debate).

PLA will also compost and be digested by microorganisms in lower temperature and humidly as typically found in backyard composts; the issue is there is no standard, so no one can say exactly how long it will take. Without defined conditions, a standard for the industry cannot be established and we begin to see proliferation of unsubstantiated claims.

PLA will not degrade in the sealed environment of “unmanaged Landfills” which are designed to be sealed tombs where no bacterial activity occurs. Neither will anything else degrade in this environment as has been shown repeatedly.

The discussion around GMO is relevant since in Europe this is a significant concern and explains why companies such as PURAC and Galactic are beginning to offer non GMO sourced feed stocks. Genetically modified corn has been increasing in the USA for several years but its use is in no way being driven by the production of PLA.

The current Natureworks PLA plant, at full capacity, will produce 300 million pounds of PLA per year to produce this; 750 million pounds of corn (with 15% moisture) are required. The total 2002 US corn for grain production was 9 billion bushels or 504 billion pounds (1 bushel = 56 pounds = 25.4 kg). So, at full capacity PLA will take 0.15% of the total corn for grain production in the USA — less than one-fifth of one percent. (Source

So it is quite ludicrous to suggest that PLA is driving genetic modification of corn. Today Natureworks have no alternative but to use the cheapest supply of sugar which in the USA happens to be from GMO feed corn. Natureworks, I believe would love not to have to use this due to the ongoing debate, but in the end cost of the product is a driver for the marketplace. They have offered alternatives to their customers which would allow them to buy PLA from a non GMO source but I believe the economics make this non practical. In the end they and others who make products from sugars will find non GMO sources if this is what the consumer demands. Also I am not saying that GMO is good or bad –just stating a fact.

Finally, contamination of the waste stream. Primarily today this is PET bottles. Natureworks have tried to penetrate this market and have come into conflict with the recycling community. To attempt to alleviate this they are working with BioCor who is buying back the PLA bottles and converting them back to lactic acid. While this is in its infancy, like all technologies once a critical mass of product is available then this could be a viable more cost effective alternative to composting.

jeudi 7 octobre 2010

Improved Standards Needed for Bioplastic Claims

Bioplastics bring with them potential benefits both at the start and end of their lives. On one side, they're made with non-petroleum materials that are typically non-food crops or waste. At the other end, they can be composted and in some settings provide energy.

A big challenge surrounding bioplastics is that end-of-life phase since there is slim infrastructure for properly disposing of some types of bioplastics and a lack of standards that match real-life composting situations.
Kelly Lehrmann, a consultant with bioplastic producer FKuR Plastics Corporation, said there are around 50 facilities in the U.S. that accept compostable bags and 44 that take compostable food service items like utensils and cups.

"Currently bioplastics are not really welcome in the recycling stream," she said. "(Recyclers are) having a very difficult time being able to separate it."

The main disposal method for bioplastics is composting, but compost facilities have varying turnover times and temperatures, sometimes differing from standards like ASTM D6400, a specification for compostable plastics in municipal and industrial composting facilities.

More so, there is no standard for anaerobic digestion, a process that uses microorganisms in an oxygen-free environment to degrade materials, said Robert Whitehouse, director of applications development for bioplastic maker Metabolix.

"(Anaerobic digestion) is an important operation because it provides a fuel for operating the facility and putting energy back in the grid," he said. Other composting methods lose that energy, but still create compost.

With a lack of standards that match how facilities are really operating, composters are wary of accepting bioplastics since they don't want to deal with contaminants, nor would they want to slow down their operations to meet possibly longer degrading times needed for bioplastics.

UL Environment green chemistry scientist William Hoffman said UL Environment is looking at how to better match testing methods for products with actual composting conditions in order to help make claims of compostability stronger.

For now UL Environment is working with manufacturers to oversee lab tests to validate claims of biodegradability based on the test methods used, but there is still the lack of an overall standard to use when claiming something will biodegrade in an anaerobic digester.


mardi 5 octobre 2010

Frito-Lay abandonne ses sacs compostables bruyants

Il y’a 18 mois, Frito-Lay créait le buzz avec le lancement du premier sac de chips, 100% compostable. Mais le buzz a très vite tourné au Flop. Les sachets compostables sont très bruyants et agacent énormément le consommateur. Un groupe FaceBook "Sorry But I Can't Hear You Over This SunChips Bag." a même réussi à réunir 44 000 mécontents!
Frito-Lay vient d’annoncer qu’elle abandonne finalement les sachets de Sunchips compostables. Les ventes de Sunchips ont chuté de 11% comparées à l’année dernière.
Les leçons à tirer de cette histoire de marketing vert qui a tourné au fiasco…
  1. L’éco-conception ne doit pas faire oublier les fonctionnalités et attentes de tout emballage: Conservation, protection transport et…Praticité. Cette dernière semble justement avoir été sous-estimée par les nouveaux convertis à l’éco-conception. Par praticité, on entend la facilité d’ouverture et le confort d’utilisation. Ce dernier semble avoir été négligé par Frito-Lay. Frito-Lay a péché par excès de marketing vert

  2. Cet exemple illustre parfaitement à quel point les médias sociaux modifient profondément le monde du marketing…Tropicana en avait aussi fait l’amère et très coûteuse expérience…

  3. La promotion des articles et produits compostables doit impérativement s’accompagner du développement et de la généralisation d’infrastructures adéquates permettant le compostage.

  4. Les comportements à encourager doivent rester la Réduction à la source, la Réutilisation et le Recyclage. Les bioplastiques n’ont vraiment de valeur ajoutée environnementale que lorsqu’il n’est pas possible d’envisager les 3R.